BizTalk Server: Basics principles of Maps – Introduction (Part 1)

Posted: March 29, 2012 in BizTalk
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Maps or transformations are one of the most common components in the integration processes. They act as essential translators in the decoupling between the different systems to connect. In this article, as we explore the BizTalk Mapper Designer, we will explain its main concepts, covering slightly themes such as product architecture, BizTalk Schemas and some of the most widely used standards in the translation of messages.

This article intends to be an introductory note for whom is taking the first steps in this technology.

We can define BizTalk, in a very generic and simple manner, as a server for message routing, capable of handling, validate, transform and control numerous processes, simplifying the needs of adjustments to connect each system, i.e., is a tool and infrastructure unique, ideal to be used primarily for Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), Business to Business (B2B) Integration. Besides the patterns “Fire & Forget”, BizTalk Server is also used for more complex scenarios where the business logic (workflow) depends on various messages that need to be correlated with orchestrations – Business Process Management (BPM) solutions. In this article we will focus only in the process of mapping and transformation of messages.


All messages are received by BizTalk through physical ports, called Receive Ports. A Receive Port is a logical container for one or several receive locations, whereas, the Receive Locations are where you specify the details about the transport to be used, the exact address where the message is to be received and any other specific properties to that transport type, as you can see in the following example:


A FILE adapter could be, for example, a network folder (\\fileshare.local\orders\) with a filter (*.edifact) and parallel we could also be receiving orders from a Web Service (SOAP/REST/XML).

When a message is receives from the adapter, it will execute a pipeline. A Pipeline is a simply sequential composition of components whose main objective is:

  • Translate and transform messages: which may be in different formats: text files (Flat File), compressed files (ZIP) to the format that BizTalk uses internally to process messages: XML (Extensible Markup Language).
  • Validate incoming messages: In its normal functioning, BizTalk Server only processes messages that are internally recognized. For that, it uses XML Schema that allow to describe the structure (records, elements, attributes, namespace, names, data types) and that also defines the validation rules (whether it is required or not, number of times the element may appear (occurrence), hierarchy) of the XML messages.

Then the messages are dumped inside the MessageBox (database) where the different subscribers (1 or more interested in this message) will subscribe the message and receive them. These subscribers can be other physical ports, typically, send Ports (for message routing scenarios) or orchestrations, launching new processes or waking up those who were waiting (through correlated fields)

Note: The key to understanding port terminology in BizTalk is to understand the notions of logical ports (also called orchestration ports) and physical ports. To oversimplify, it’s the difference between creating ports in Orchestration Designer (logical), and using BizTalk Explorer or BizTalk Administration Console (physical). When a developer creates a Specify Later port in Orchestration Designer, he’s configuring a logical port, leaving the corresponding physical port properties to be configured later by the BizTalk administrator. Giving the administrator the flexibility to configure the physical port in the production environment is a key reason why Specify Later is the most frequently used option.

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  1. Lex Hegt says:

    Nice article Sandro! Very well explained and helpfull! Looking forward to the rest of the series.

  2. […] Note: In this article we will talk only of Syntax transformations. If you are looking to learn more about semantic transformations, you can consult the article "BizTalk Server: Basics principles of Maps". […]

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